Dr. Christoph Caesar - Inventor

Sub-Structure of the Electron

To date, no detailed accepted theory or model of the electron itself is established. What is known is a variety of properties, each standing alone in a table of elementary constants.

There are several theoretical publications which propose a rotating shell or mass-less particles circulating with the speed of light, or in- and outcoming standing waves, which explain many relevant aspects of the electron like the spin and a diameter to be the Compton wavelength.

At very close distances, however, the electron exhibits a much stronger electrical field than during normal observations - seen by the variation of the coupling constant at very high energies. This looks, as if there were a stronger electromagnetic field present than represented by the charge e-. Can the electron be described as circulating purely electromagnetic wave?

The field of a sine wave has a positive and a negative half wave:

If looked at in space (right side), the underside of the positive field vector has the effect of a negative field per definition (see attraction of the positive test charge). If we let the above wave circulate with an internal twist like a Moebius ribbon in one turn (half sinus phase of the field), then the wave turns upside down for the next half phase.

In this Moebius ribbon, the negative half wave stays on the inside during the first revolution. After the internal torsion, the underside of the negative half wave - i.e. the postitively acting part of the second half wave is on the outside of the particle again to give the positron in the above case. If we reverse the polarities, we obtain the electron:

As the field arrives on the other side of the ring with some delay due to the speed of light, the inside field partly compensates itself during one revolution. The excess positive or negative field on the outside then is the origin of the electric charge of the positron or electron, respectively

The ratio of the field energy responsible for the charge to the total particle rest energy is the dimensionless figure 1/137, which is identical in value and formula to the fine structure or coupling constant. From the spin the electric charge and the electron radius can be calculated.

Mass Relation of Leptons and Nucleons

One of the other key questions of elementary particles physics is the mass relation between leptons and nucleons, hadrons or quarks, or, more specifically, the relation between the mass of the electron and the proton.

Leptons in many hadron decays and interactions show a typical energy of 53 MeV. This energy is found for electrons, positrons and even neutrinos which are emitted from decay processes of mesons and from other particle reactions. This energy of 53 MeV is observed so often that it cannot be a coincidence.

A simple spherical quantum wave is assumed for the quark. Only six individual orbits of these high energy electrons can be placed in this spherical quark without violating the Pauli Principle.

Three quarks consisting of six of these electrons per quark fit the observed mass and charges of the proton minus a typical binding energy.

3 * 6 * 53 MeV - 2*8 MeV = 938 MeV - qed.

This spherical quantum wave can have eight quadrants in a simple agitated version. The quark is shown to have exactly and only three different variations of this eight quadrant quantum wave, the colours.

For more information

see the page on the Structure of the Electron.

or see the page on the Structure of Nucleons and Quarks.

Structure of the Electron -

Correlation of Elementary Charge with Spin in a
Singularity Free Electron Model

This work on the structure of the electron has been submitted to scientific journals in serveral versions.

Find here the submitted papers on the electron, which needs two revolutions to fulfil one full phase. The animation shows one full phase of the positively charged particle, the positron.

Structure of the Quark, Structure of Nucleons and Quarks -

Correlation of Proton Mass with Electron Mass

The work on the composition of the nucleons and quarks has been submitted to a scientific journal, too. Find here the latest version of the submitted paper on the nucleon and quark substructure.

See examples of the down quark with 3 positive and 5 negative 1/6 charge quadrants to give the-1/3 e- charge:

There are only these three versions of the 3:5 quadrants possible - the colours of the quark.

This model of the lepton as rotating photon does not contradict current models.

The model of the quark consisting of 6 high energy electrons and positrons does not contradict accepted models, either.

The theories offer a singularity free particle model for leptons and hadrons, as no point-like particle is present.

It is a simple theory explaining the so-called

wave-particle duality.




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